Fashion in the Age of Datini

Books and Articles

This is a long page. You can skip directly to works whose first author begins with a letter by clicking that letter below. If the siglum at the end of an entry is a link, you can click on it to link directly to that entry. If you came here by mistake, you can return to the table of contents.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z and unsorted


Simone Abraham-Thisse, “Les Aunes des drapiers au Moyen Age,” in J.-Cl. Hoquet (éd.), «Une activité universelle: peser et mesurer à travers les âges» Cahiers de Métrologie, Tomes 11-12 (1993-1994) pp. 385-399 {the best list of evidence for the length of various medieval ells which I have read (based mostly on handbooks for merchants from the 16th-18th centuries)} siglum: abraham-thisse-aunes-des-drapiers

Doris Aichholzer, Wildu machen ayn guet essen…Drei mittelhochdeutsche Kochbücher: Erstedition, Übersetzung, Kommentar (Peter Lang Verlag: 1999) #recipe #cooking siglum: aichholzer-drei-kochbuecher

Marko Aleksić, Mediaeval Swords from Southeastern Europe: Material from 12th to 15th Century (Belgrade: Duraplast, 2007) siglum: aleksic-mediaeval-swords

Josef Alm, European Crossbows: A Survey. Royal Armouries Monograph 3 (1994) {I have not seen this} siglum:alm-european-crossbows

Thomas Amyot, “Transcript of Two Rolls, Containing an Inventory of Effects formerly Belonging to Sir John Fastolfe.” Archaeologia XXI (1826) pp. 1-50 {this inventory from, probably, 1459 is in English and records everything someone very rich owned} siglum:amyot-effects-fastolfe

Anonymous, Le Ménagier de Paris (Paris, 1393). This unfinished treatise for women on household management (what Xenophon called oikonomia) addresses clothing and its repair and maintenance as well as #cooking, medicine, gardening, food preservation, and sex. The editio princeps was Jérôme Pichon (ed.), Traité de morale et d’économie domestique composé vers 1393 par un bourgeois parisien. 2 volumes (Paris: Imprimerie Crapelet, 1846-1847) Tome I (Gallica) - Tome II (Gallica) - Tome I (Internet Archive). There are translations in Eileen Power, The Goodman of Paris (1928; selective, excerpts on the Internet Medieval Sourcebook ) and Gina L. Greco and Christine M. Rose, The Good Wife’s Guide: Le Ménagies de Paris, A Medieval Household Book (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009) siglum: le-menagier-de-Paris

Anonymous, "Methods and Materials of North European Painting in the National Gallery, 1400-1550." National Gallery Technical Bulletin, Vol. 18 (1997) pp. 6-55 {recommended by Clarke, but its focus is on the period 1450-1550 in the Low Countries}

Anonymous, The Times of Edward the Black Prince: Replicas of his Achievements: Knights of the Garter, Past and Present. Canterbury Papers No. 8 (The Friends of Canterbury Cathedral: Canterbury, 1954) {more information on the achievements of Edward of Woodstock and the construction of replicas to hang over his tomb} siglum: times-of-edward-the-black-prince

Tina Anderlini, “The Shirt Attributed to St. Louis.” In Robin Netherton and Gale Owen-Crocker (eds.), Medieval Clothing and Textiles 11 (2015) pp. 49-78 {there is a lot of information about this garment floating around online in English, including including an article by Heather Rose Jones, but this is the first study based on taking the shirt out of its case, and it turns out that modern stitches and hangers made it hard to understand the construction of this garment without laying it flat and handling it} siglum:anderlini-shirt-st-Louis

S. Armitage-Smith (ed.) John of Gaunt’s Register (1372-76), Camden Soc. 3rd ser. 20 & 21 (London: Offices of the Royal Historical Society, 1911) Part 1 (1371-1375) and Part 2 {volume 2 p. 193 has a purchase of two yards of double camocas to make a paltock for a squire} siglum: armitage-smith-john-of-gaunts-register

Janet Arnold, “The Jupon or Coat-Armour of the Black Prince in Canterbury Cathedral.” Journal of the Church Monuments Society VIII (1993) pp. 12-22 siglum: arnold-jupon-black-prince

Janet Arnold, Patterns of Fashion: The Cut and Construction of Clothes for Men and Women c1560-1620 (Macmillan London Ltd.: London, 1985) siglum: arnold-patterns-of-fashion-3 {a treasury by someone with a stage-costuming background who spent a lot of time handling original clothes; part 3 of a five-part series (two volumes in the 1960s, two volumes posthumously in 2008 and 2019 by The School of Historical Dress, UK. Like any book compiled by observation over a long period of time, this contains some mistakes and some things which are now interpreted differently; trump-annotated-arnold is a good overview from 1987}

Ruth Matilda Anderson, Hispanic Costume 1480-1530. Hispanic Society of America, New York, 1979. ISBN 87535-126-3. {very important paraphrases of early 16th century tailors and hosiers’ rules from Seville and Grenada … as far as I know, these sources were last reprinted in the 17th century!} siglum: anderson-hispanic-costume

Louis Douët d’Arcq ed., Comptes de l’argenterie des rois de France au XIVe siècle (Jules Renouard: Paris, 1851) / {some information on clothing is buried among other information eg. vol. 1 pp. 142-144, vol. 2 pages 150, 151, 152 (the famous purchase of three ells of linen of Rheims to make a pattern (patron, DMF s.v. patron 2) of a little pourpoint for someone to send to Germany and make a plates for that person} siglum: darcq-comptes-de-largenterie

Louis Douët d’Arcq ed., Nouveau recueil de comptes de l’argenterie des rois de France (Jules Renouard: Paris, 1874) siglum: darcq-comptes-de-largenterie-nouveau

↑ back to top ↑


J. Baader (ed.), Nürnberger Polizeiordnungen aus dem 13. bis 15. Jh. (Stuttgart, 1861),1 {Table of contents} siglum: baader-nuerberger-polizeiordnungen

Bachrach, David Steward (2004) “Crossbows for the King: The Crossbow during the Reigns of John and Henry III of England.” Technology and Culture, Vol. 45 No. 1 pp. 102–119 siglum: bachrach-crossbows-for-the-king-i

Bachrach, David Steward (2006) “Crossbows for the King, Part II: The Crossbow During the Reign of Edward I of England (1272–1307).” Technology and Culture, Vol. 47 No. 1 pp. 81–90 siglum: bachrach-crossbows-for-the-king-ii

Karl August Barack (ed.), Des teufels Netz, satirisch-didaktisches Gedicht aus der ersten Hälfte des fünfzehnten Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart: Litterarischer Verein, 1863) {contains a kind of 'satire of the trades' where the Devil lists the sins of tailors, sword-cutlers, goldsmiths, etc., Wikipedia says it dates c. 1414-1420} siglum: des-teufels-netz-ed-barack

Katherine Barich and Marion McNealy, Drei Schnittbücher: Three Austrian Master Tailor Books of the 16th Century (Nadel und Faden Press, 2015) {cutting plans and suggested materials for a variety of garments from late in the 16th century, with a detailed commentary … some important 14th century cuts are missing, but it shows a way of thinking about how to use fabric and some cuts which are good fits for garments in art. There are not as many measurements on the diagrams as in Spanish examples, but you can often use the width of the cloth as a yardstick. Facsimiles of the printed books by Diego de Freyle, Juan de Alcega, and Francisco de la Rocha de Burguen are harder to obtain but digital editions are sometimes available} siglum: barich-mcneally-drei-schnittbuecher

W. Paley Baildon, “XXII.—A Wardrobe Account of 16–17 Richard II, 1393–4,” Archaeologia, Vol. 62 No. 2 (1911) pp. 497-514 {many lists of materials used to make specific garments for an English lord– probably Roger Mortimer the 4th Earl of March, say the latest books} siglum:baildon-wardrobe-account

Charles Riley Beard, Historical Dictionary of Arms, Armour, and Fashion Beard, who died in 1958, left a manuscript and typescript dictionary of historical clothing terms from the British Isles. Entries beginnig with A have been scanned as of July 2022. siglum: beard-dictionary

Elizabeth Bennett, "King Rene's Tournament Book: A Modern English Translation" (1998)

Benton, Janetta Rebold (2009) Materials, Methods, and Masterpieces of Medieval Art. ABC-Clio: Santa Barbara, CA - Denver, CO - Oxford. {legi April 2022}

Black, Maggie (2012) The Medieval Cookbook. Revised Edition NON VIDI

Blair, Claude. European Armour circa 1066 to circa 1700 (London: B.T. Batsford, 1958) {One of the last books in the antiquarian tradition, this is learned but devious- it tends to imply things that it can't back with a specific source, and does not call out when it is switching from a narrative based on art to a narrative based on surviving armour. Strongest on the 16th and 17th century but still the only broad history of European armour in the 14th and 15th century} siglum: blair-european-armour

Claude Blair, “The Word ‘Baselard.’” Journal of the Arms and Armour Society XI.4 (1984), pp. 193-206, pl. XLVI, XLVII siglum:blair-baselard

Étienne Boileau, Livre des métiers (1296) = This has been published at least twice, as George Bernard Depping ed., Réglemens sur les arts et métiers de Paris rédigés au XIIIe siècle et connus sous le nom du Livre des métiers d’Etienne Boileau. Série 1. (Crapelet: Paris, 1837) and as René de Lespinasse et François Bonnardot (eds.), Les Métiers et Corporations de la Ville de Paris: XIIIe Siècle. Le Livre des Métirs d’Étienne Boileau (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1879) #source:document" siglum: boileau-metiers

Melanie Schuessler Bond, Dressing the Scottish Court, 1543-1553: Clothing in The Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland (Boydell Press, 2019) ISBN 9781783272624 hardcover {very worthwhile on its specific place and time, the section on military garments is thin. If your focus is the age of Datini, then hayward-great-wardrobe-henry-vii, johnson-the-kings-servants-i, and johnson-the-queens-servants-ii are much better value for money} siglum:bond-dressing-the-scottish-court

Elisa Tosi Brandi, Abbigliamento e Società a Rimini nel XV Secolo (Panozzo Editore: Rimini, 2000) {summary of 99 inventories from Rimini dating between 1400 and 1468, with comments on the social context, sumptuary laws, etc. One of these is a wool draper’s shop (with full transcription!), two belong to men-at-arms. Her Italian is not complicated.} siglum:brandi-abbigliamento-e-societa

Elisa Tosi Brandi and Oreste Delucca, "L’inventario di Castel Sismondo del 13 ottobre 1468." In A. Turchini (ed.), Castel Sismondo, Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta e l’arte militare del primo Rinascimento (atti del convegno), Società Editrice “Il Ponte Vecchio”, Cesena 2003, pp. 337-355 siglum: brandi-delucca-inventario-di-castel-sismondo

Breiding, Dirk H. (2009) "The Crossbow of Count Ulrich V of Württemberg." Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 44 (2009) {see also de-cosson-crossbow-of-ulrich-v} siglum: breiding-crossbow-of-ulrich-v

Dirk H. Breiding, A Deadly Art: European Crossbows, 1250–1850 (2014) siglum:breiding-european-crossbows

Breiding, Dirk H. (2019) "Late Medieval Shields in the Philadelphia Museum of Art – A Survey." In R. Beuing und W. Augustyn (eds.) Schilde des Spätmittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit (Passau: Klinger Verlag) pp. 69-95 {skims over many objects quickly with a focus on understanding them as art, but useful photos and thorough bibliography} siglum: breiding-medieval-shields-in-philadelphia

A.R. Bridbury, Medieval English Clothmaking: An Economic Survey (Heinemann Educational Books: The Pasold Research Fund, 1982) {Learned but focused on arguing against other people's interpretation not on providing a summary of the evidence for newcomers. A memoriable quote pp. 76, 77}

Urban society, often so amicably co-operative and even fraternal in its professions, was intensely combative, acrimonious and vindictinve in practice. There is scarcely a town with records adequate to the purpose from which we cannot glean a story of Montagues and Capulets. ...By December 1457, the mayor (of Salisbury) was driven to the point of instituting a tariff of penalties for those worthies, members of Salisbury's exclusive governing bodies, who uttered imprecautions such as: 'I defy thee: what art thou?'; or 'I as good as thou: churl, knave, harlot'; or 'I as rich as thou, and greater of livelode than thou'; or 'Though thou sit here in assembly I to contrary thee and never to agree to thee, and am better of birth than thou, and have born the worship and the estate of this city and kept it as well as thou.'

siglum: bridbury-medieval-english-clothmaking

Johann Karl Brucker (ed.), Strassburger Zunft- und Polizei-Verordnungen des 14. und 15. Jahrhunderts (Karl J. Trübner Verlag: Strassburg, 1889) or siglum: brucker-strassburger-zunft-und-polizeiordnungen

Anne H. van Buren with the assistance of Roger S. Wieck, Illuminating Fashion: Dress in the Art of Medieval France and the Netherlands, 1325-1515 (New York: The Morgan Library and Museum, 2011) N8217 C63B87 2011 Bookfinder or siglum: van-buren-illuminating-fashion

Dorothy K. Burnham, Cut my Cote (1973) {the standard introduction to clothing assembled from rectangles and triangles, allowing almost all of the fabric to be used … in Datini’s urban world most clothing was probably assembled in other ways, but triangle-and-rectangle construction was still widespread in rural Europe at the beginning of the 20th century} siglum: burnham-cut-my-cote

François Buttin, "La Lance et l'arrêt de cuirasse," Archeologia, Vol. XCIX (1965) pp. 77-205 siglum: buttin-arret-de-cuirasse

↑ back to top ↑


Aurora Fiorentini Capitani, Vittorio Erlindo, and Stefania Ricci, Il Costume al Tempo do Pico e Lorenzo di Medici (Milan: Edizione Charta, 1994) pp. 84-90 on doublets cited and translate by Liz Jones siglum: xyz

Cappelli, Dizionario di Abbreviature Guide to the abbreviations and ligatures in medieval Latin manuscripts and incunabula. An English translation of the introductory essay is at while specific entries can be searched

Tobias Capwell, Armour of the English Knight, 1400-1450 (Thomas Del Mar: London, 2015) siglum: capwell-aotek-i

Tobias Capwell, Armour of the English Knight, 1450-1500 (Thomas del Mar: London, 2021) ISBN 978-0993324635 siglum: capwell-aotek-ii

Capwell, Tobias. "Mail and the Knight in Renaissance Italy, Part I" In Armi Antiche: Bollettino dell’Accademia di San Marciano - Torino, 2017 pp. 9-84

Capwell, Tobias. “A Depiction of an Italian Arming Doublet, c1435-45.” Zeitschrift für Waffen- und Kostümkunde, NS. Bd. 44 Heft 2 (2002), pp. 177–196

Cennino Cennini, Il Libro dell’ Arte. This treatise on painting, written before 1437 (possibly in the 1390s?), contains valuable material on block printing, painting textiles, materials used for different trades, and a way of approaching problems. Gaetano and Carlo Milanesi’s Italian text from 1867 is available on the Hathi Trust;view=1up;seq=169; the D.V. Thompson translation is available in an affordable reprint from Dover or free as HTML; the latest edition and translation is Lara Broecke, Cennino Cennini’s Il Libro dell’Arte: A New English Translation and Commentary with Italian Transcription (Archetype Publications: London, 2015) ISBN-13 978-1909492288. siglum: cennini-libro-dell-arte

Clarke, Mark (2011) Medieval Painters' Materials and Techniques: The Montpellier Liber Diversarum Arcium (Archetype Publications: London) {an early 15th century copy of a collection of Latin recipes perhaps begun somewhere in the north circa 1300 and expanded later in the 14th century closer to Italy; Clarke thinks its a poor copy of a treatise by a skilled and scholarly painter, your mileage may vary} siglum: clarke-ed-liber-diversarium-arcium

Camille Couderc, Les comptes d’un grand couturier parisien du XVe siècle (Paris: n.p., 1911) {Dates from 1423 to 1473 and not tremendously exciting (more summaries than complete lists of materials for specific garments)} siglum:couderc-comptes-dun-couturier

J. Cowgill, M. de Neergaard, and P. Wilthew, Knives and Scabbards. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London: 1 (Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2000) {The basic reference on knives, sheaths, shears, and scissors from the 12th to the 15th century, with many measurements and B&W drawings} siglum: MoL-knives-and-scabbards

Ann Crabb, The Merchant of Prato’s Wife (University of Michigan Press, 2015) ISBN 978-0-472-11949-3 {basically a book of social history, and tends to summarize rather than quote sources, but many details about how clothing fit into everyday life} siglum:crabb-merchant-of-pratos-wife

Elizabeth Coatsworth et al., Clothing the Past: Surviving Garments from Early Medieval to Early Modern Western Europe (2017) {has an article on the Rothwell jack} siglum:coatsworth-et-al-clothing-the-past

Cunnington, Cecil Willett, and Cunnington, Phillis, Handbook of English Mediaeval Costume. Second edition (Faber & Faber: London 1969) siglum: cunnington-and-cunninton-2e

The Company of Saynte George, Clothing Guide- Men, version 1.1 - December 2010 siglum:st-george-clothing-men-1-1

Charles Alexander, Baron de Cosson, “The Crossbow of Ulrich V. Count of Wurtemburg (sic), 1460, with remarks on its construction,” Archaeologia, Vol. 52 No. 2 (1893) pp. 445-464, pl. 34 {the first article to dissect a European composite crossbow, and to publish two list of materials for making some in 1358 and 1361; the titular crossbow is now Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, accession number 04.3.36, see also breiding-crossbow-of-ulrich-v} siglum:de-cosson-crossbow-of-ulrich-v

Elizabeth Crowfoot, “The Clothing of a Fourteenth-Century Nubian Bishop.” In Veronika Gervers ed., Studies in Textile History in Memory of Harold B. Burnham (Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1977) pp. 43-51 OCLC 4035631 {Grave of Bishop Timotheos of Ibrîm in Nubia who took office, according to the scroll deposited in the tomb, in 1372. Where in wet sites from Europe the wool survives and the linen is lost, here the linen and cotton survived and the wool was devoured by insects! The grave goods include a tunic, hooded oval cloak, trousers, and woven belt} siglum:crowfoot-nubian-bishop

Elisabeth Crowfoot, Frances Pritchard and Kay Staniland, Textiles and Clothing, c.1150-1450. Second edition. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London (The Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk) ISBN-13 9781843832393 siglum: MoL-textiles-and-clothing

Anne Curry, The Battle of Agincourt: Sources and Interpretations. War in History (The Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2000) siglum: curry-battle-of-agincourt-sources-and-interpretations

Anne Curry, "Disciplinary ordinances for English and Franco-Scottish Armies in 1385: An International Code?" Journal of Medieval History vol. 37 (2011) pp. 269–294 siglum: curry-disciplinary-ordinances-1385

Anne Curry and Susan Jenkins (eds.), The Funeral Achievements of Henry V at Westminster Abbey: The Arms and Armour of Death (Boydell & Brewer: Martlesham, Suffolk, 2022) siglum: curry-jenkins-ets-funeral-achievements-henry-v

Cuvelier, Chronique de Bertrand du Guesclin. Edited by Ernest Charrière (Firmin Didot: Paris, 1839) tome I and tome II (information about other editions and translations on Arlima) siglum: cuvelier-chronique-de-bertran-du-guesclin

↑ back to top ↑


Margherita Datini, Letters to Francesco Datini. Translated by Carolyn James and Antonio Pagliaro. Iter Press and the Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, Victoria University in the University of Toronto: Toronto, 2012. siglum: margherita-datini-to-francisco-datini

Dean, Bashford (1929) Catalogue of European Daggers Including the Ellis, De Dino, Riggs and Reubell Collections (The Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York) siglum: dean-european-daggers

Chrétien Dehaisnes, Documents et extraits diverses concernant l’histoire de l’Art (Lille: L. Daniel, 1886) volume 1 (up to 1373) {mostly on books, armour, goldsmith’s work, and other durable goods but there are some banners and other tailor’s work} siglum: dehaisnes-documents-et-extraits-diverses-i

Chrétien Dehaisnes, Documents et extraits diverses concernant l’histoire de l’Art (Lille: L. Daniel, 1886) volume 2 (1374-1401) {check out the inventory of the effects of Philip the Good of Burgundy on pages 847-849} siglum: dehaisnes-documents-et-extraits-diverses-ii

Denis Diderot and Jean le Rone d'Alembert (eds.), Encyclopédie (1751-1772 with later revisions, suppliments, and translations) (photos of the plates and transcript) - (text-only translation) {an essential source of hints as to how the descendants of trecento people did things} siglum: diderot-encyclopedie

Lorenz Diefenbach, Glossarium Latino-Germanicum Mediae et Infimae Aetatis (Frankfurt-am-Main: Joseph Baer Verlag, 1857) The shelfmarks and dates of his sources are not always clear, but still worth browsing from Latin to German

Viscount Dillon (Harold Arthur Lee-Dillon), "On a MS. Collection of Ordinances of Chivalry of the Fifteenth Century, belonging to Lord Hastings." Archaeologia, or, Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, Vol. 57, No. 1 (1900) pp. 29-70 siglum: dillon-ordinances-of-chivalry On Age of Datini

Chris Dobson, Art and Armour in the Western Alps: Milan, Savoy, and the 'French Style' 1400-1500 (self-published PDF, 2020) ISBN 0-95411633-1-1 siglum: dobson-armour-western-alps

Valerie Dorge and F. Carey Howlett (eds.), Painted Wood: History and Conservation (1998) NON VIDI siglum: dorge-and-howlett-eds-painted-wood

Carol van Driel-Murray “Fourteenth-century sword sheaths from Leiden city centre.” In Quita Mould (ed.) Leather in Warfare: Attack, Defence and the Unexpected (Leeds: Royal Armouries Museum, 2017) pp. 34-47 {the leathers of sword sheaths, probably mostly from the early 14th century} siglum: van-driel-murray-sword-sheaths-leiden

Günter Düriegl, Wehrhafte Stadt: Das Wiener Bürgerliche Zeughaus im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert (Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien: Vienna, 1986) siglum: duriegl-wehrhafte-stadt

↑ back to top ↑


Gerry Embleton and John Howe, The Medieval Soldier: 15th Century Camp Life Recreated in Colour Photographs (Windrowe & Greene: London, 1994) siglum: embleton-howe-medieval-soldier

Geoff Egan and Frances Pritchard, Dress Accessories, 1150-1450. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London (London: HMSO, 1991) {Covers buckles and other metal mounts for leather, broaches, rings, buttons, needlecases, combs, girdles and straps, pouches, and mirrors in cases} siglum:MoL-dress-accessories

Stuart Ellis-Gorman, The Medieval Crossbow: A Weapon Fit to Kill a King (Pen & Sword, 2022) ISBN 9781526789532 Publisher's site siglum: ellis-gorman-medieval-crossbow

Joan Evans, Dress in Mediaeval France (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952) {one of the last works in the antiquarian tradition, this book is a good guide to medieval texts to track down and read in the original language … be careful of her paraphrases of the sources, and remember that she was writing when few surviving garments and textile fragments had been published} siglum:evans-dress-in-mediaeval-france

↑ back to top ↑


Faltermeier, Christel, and Rudolf Meyer (1995) "Appendix: Notes on the Restoration of the Behaim Shields," Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 30 (1995) {see also nickel-seven-shields-of-behaim} siglum: faltermeier-meyer-restoration-behaim-shields

Guilhelm Ferrand with help from Jean-Pierre Garcia, Les inventaires après décès de la ville de Dijon à la fin du Moyen Âge (1390-1459). Tome I : 1390-1408 (Méridiennes Presses Universitaires du Midi: Tolouse, 2018) ISBN-13 978-2-8107-0544-3 open access at {for 25 Euros you get 660 pages of nice detailed technical sources, what are you waiting for? You can buy it direct from the publisher or find it on Bookfinder} siglum:ferrand-inventaires-dijon-i

Ilse Fingerlin, Gürtel des hohen und späten Mittelalters. Kunstwissenschaftliche Studien, Bd. 46. München: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1971. {Robert Macpherson tentatively recommends it as a typology of belt furniture} siglum:fingerlin-guertel-des-mittelalters

Fingerlin, Ilse (1997) “Seltene Textilien aus Kloster Alpirsbach im Nordschwarzwald.” Waffen- und Kostümkunde: Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Historische Waffen- und Kostümkunde, Band 39, Heft 1 & 2, pp. 99-122 {the publication of a child's canvas doublet (Wams) and a pair of linen joined hosen dating roughly 1490-1535 n.b they are so long that don’t have eyelets to attach them to a doublet! There is an English summary on} siglum:fingerlin-textilien-aus-kloster-alpirsbach

Fingerlin, Ilse (2001) "Textil- und Lederfunde." In Alpirsbach. Zur Geschichte von Kloster und Stadt. Textband 2. Forschungen und Berichte der Bau- und Kunstdenkmalpflege Baden-Württemberg 10 (Stuttgart 2001) pp. 715-817 ISBN 978-3-8062-1336-2 {another writeup of the 16th century canvas clothing and leather shoes from Kloster Alpirsbach, this was priced for libraries but copies are available for 39 or 48 Euros from AntikMakler and the Gesellschaft für Achäologie in Württemberg and Hohenyollern (both in Germany) as of 2021} siglum: fingerlin-textil-und-lederfunde

Jessica Finley, “The Lübeck Wappenröcke: Distinctive Style in Fifteenth-Century German Fabric Armor.” In Robin Netherton and Gale R. Owen-Crocker (eds.), Medieval Clothing and Textiles 13 (Boydell and Brewer, 2017) pp. 121-152 siglum:finley-luebeck-wappenroecke

Édouard Forestié, Les Livres de comptes des frères Bonis, marchands montalbanais du XIVe siècle. Archives Historiques de la Gascogne, Fasc. XX, XXIII, XXVI. Honore Champion and Cocharaux Frères: Paris and Auch, 1890 and 1893 and 1894. {The accounts of this family of drapers list the cloth sold to make specific garments for specific people in specific years; the editor collected references to specific garments, suggested French equivalents of Occitan words, and researched weights, measures, etc.}. siglum:forestie-livres-de-comptes

Lilli Fransen, Anna Nørgaard and Else Østergård, Medieval Garments Reconstructed: Norse Clothing Patterns (Aarhus University Press: Aarhus, 2011) {on Norse Greenland, to be read with Østergård, Woven into the Earth} siglum:medieval-garments-reconstructed

Luciana Frangioni, “Bacinetti e altre difese della testa nella documentazione di uníazienda mercantile, 1366-1410,” Archeologia Medievale XI (1984), pp. 507-522 siglum:frangioni-bacinetti

Frangioni, Luciana. (1984) "Martino da Milano 'fa i bacinetti in Avignone.'" Ricerche storiche: Rivista quadrimestrale dell'Associazione "Ricerche Storiche e Archeologia Industriale" vol. 14 (1984) pp. 69-116 siglum: frangioni-martino-da-milano

Luciana Frangioni (ed.), Milano fine Trecento: il carteggio milanese dell'Archivio Datini di Prato, 2 volumes (Firenze: Opus Libri, 1994) siglum:frangioni-milano-fine-trecento [Transcription of volume II at]

Luciana Frangioni, Chiedere e Ottenere: L’approvvigionamento di prodotto di sucesso della Bottega Datini di Avignone nel XIV secolo (Florence: Opus Libri, 2002) siglum:frangioni-chiedere-e-ottenere

Luciana Frangioni, “Corazze ed altre difese del busto in una documentazione mercantile di fine Trecento,” in Anna Maria Falchero ed., La storia e l’economia: miscellanea di studi in onore di Giorgio Mori, (Varese: Edizioni Lativa, 2003) pp. 315-322 siglum:frangioni-corazze

Katherine L. French, Household Goods and Good Households in Late Medieval London: Consumption and Domesticity After the Plague (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2021) ISBN 978-0812253054 siglum: french-household-goods-in-london

Jean Froissart, Chroniques. This is hard to cite. Froissart just divided it into four books and released many versions which later copyists edited, abbreviated, and expanded. There is an edition by the Société de l’Histoire de France (SHF) with chapter numbers, but it only covers the first three books and older editions don't use it. There is a massive edition in 25 volumes by Baron Kervyn de Lettenhove 1867-1877 but it is not numbered. So its very hard to find a given passage in whatever arbitrary edition is to hand. The Online Froissart publishes individual manuscripts (!) but also has an index by SHF chapter A translation by Thomas Johnes published in 1857 is on the Internet Archive vol. 1 vol. 2 siglum: froissart-chroniques

↑ back to top ↑


John de Garlande, Dictionarius (Paris and Toulouse, c. 1220). A handy edition and translation of this guide to all the Latin nouns a student in Paris needed for everyday life is Barbara Blatt Rubin (tr.), The Dictionarius of John de Garlande: And the Author's Commentary (The Coronado Press: Lawrence, Kansas, 1981) siglum: garlande-dictionarius-tr-rubin

Garnier, Joseph (1895) L'artillerie des ducs de Bourgogne: d'après les documents conservés aux archives de la Côte-d'Or. Paris: H. Champion. {thanks Will McLean for the reference} siglum: garnier-artillerie-des-ducs

François-Alexandre-Pierre de Garsault, Art du Tailleur (1769) English translation of the section on men’s shirts at {more detailed than the Austrian and Spanish books from the 16th century, since the author was a scholar trying to explain the art to a wide audience} siglum:garsault-art-du-tailleur

François-Alexandre-Pierre de Garsault, L’Art de la Lingere (1771) {instructions for men’s (p. 44, pl. III) and women’s shirts and other linens, and he defines all the different stitches with diagrams. An English translation is ongoing at} siglum:garsault-art-du-lingere

Jack Gassmann, "The Use of the Crossbow in Medieval Cavalry." In Anastasija Ropa and Timothy Dawson (eds.), The Horse in Premodern European Culture (De Gruyter, January 2020) siglum:gassman-crossbow-cavalry

Victor Gay, Glossaire Archéologique du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance. Paris: Libraire de la Société Archéologique, 1887 and 1928. Tome 1 A-G and Tome 2 H-Z have been scanned. {A collection of excerpts from written sources, mostly from France and all in the original language. Useful entries include:


Jennifer Louise Geard, Goodly Gear: An Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Recreating Medieval and Renaissance Clothing. Revised edition (Master's thesis, Victoria University Wellington, 1999) siglum: geard-goodly-gear-revised

A. Geibig, Beiträge zur morphologischen Entwicklung des Schwertes im Mittelalter. Eine Analyse des Fundmaterials von ausgehenden 8. bis 12. Jahrhundert aus Sammlungen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Offa-Bücher 71. Neumünster, 1991. {non vidi; pp. 104 ff. discuss scabbards from this early period} siglum:geibig-zur-morphologischen-entwicklung

Veronika Gervers, “Medieval Garments in the Mediterranean World.” In N.B. Harte and K.G. Ponting (eds.), Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe. Pasold Studies in Textile History 2 (London: Heinemann, 1983) pp. 298-315 {very important diagrams of surviving garments, although their current location and museum number are not always clear} siglum:gervers-medieval-garments

S.M. Giuseppi, “The Wardrobe and Household Accounts of Bogo de Clare, A.D. 1284-6,” Archaeologia Vol. LXX (1920) pp. 1-56 The account book of a rich clerk. This is in the public domain, but this scan is behind a paywall siglum: giuseppi-accounts-of-bogo-de-clare

Matthew Gnagy, The Modern Maker Vol. 1: Men’s 17th Century Doublets (self-published, 2014) ISBN-13 978-0692264843 {for the purposes of this project, use it for the lessons in how to draft a pattern using two or three measurements, and the advice on efficiently making clothing by hand … most of the techniques taught and materials chosen are more applicable to 16th century and later fashions, but Gnagy is a trained suitmaker in a field where most makers are self-taught. See also his revised pattern, which he calls errata sheets (warning: Facebook!)} siglum:gnagy-modern-maker-1

Eunice Rathbone Goddard, Women’s Costume in French Texts of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. The Johns Hopkins Studies in Romance Literatures and Languages Volume VII (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1927) siglum:goddard-womens-costume

Matthias Goll, Iron Documents: Interdisciplinary studies on the technology of late medieval European plate armour production between 1350 and 1500. PhD thesis, University of Heidelberg, June 2013. siglum: goll-iron-documents

Gorman, Stuart (2016) The Technological Development of the Bow and the Crossbow in the Later Middle Ages. Ph.D. Thesis, Trinity College Dublin. siglum:gorman-development-of-the-bow-and-crossbow

Olaf Goubitz, Stepping Through Time: Archaeological Footwear from Prehistoric Times until 1800 (Stitchtig Promotie Archeologie: n.p., 2001) ISBN-13 978-90-8932-004-9 siglum: goubitz-stepping-through-time

Olaf Goubitz, Purses in Pieces: Archaeological Finds of Late Medieval and 16th Century Leather Purses, Pouches, Bags and Cases in the Netherlands. 2nd Edition. SPA Uitgevers: 2009. ISBN-13 978-9089320148 {Covers purses, pouches, wallets, bags, and leather cases with a removable lid sliding on cords (etuis) from the Netherlands, with some references to objects as early as the Roman period and as late as the 20th century} siglum:goubitz-purses-in-pieces

Gräf, Julia (2017) “Fighting in women’s clothes: The pictorial evidence of Walpurgis in Ms. I.33.” Acta Periodica Duellatorum, Vol. 5 No. 2 pp. 47-71 siglum:graef-fighting-in-womens-clothes

Johann Georg Theodor Graesse, Orbis Latinus: Lexikon lateinischer geographischer Namen des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit (1909) This has been digitalized several times including and heiMap Orbis Latinus Online

Guillaume le Breton, Philippidos (Begun in 1214-1215)

Francis Grew and Margarethe de Neergaard, Shoes and Pattens. Second Edition. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London (The Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2001) siglum:MoL-shoes-and-pattens

↑ back to top ↑


Michael Harbinson, "The lance in the fifteenth century: how French cavalry overcame the English defensive system in the latter part of the Hundred Years War," Journal of Medieval Military History, Vol. 17 pp. 141-200 {cites buttin-arret-de-cuirasse but in English so may be more accessible for some readers} siglum: harbinson-lance-fifteenth-century

Janne Harjula, Sheaths, Scabbards and Grip Coverings: Use of Leather for Portable Personal Objects in 14th-16th Century Turku (SKAS, 2006) ISBN-13 978-9519680149 siglum: harjula-sheaths-scabbards

Adrien Harmand, Jeanne d’Arc, son costume, son armure: essai de reconstitution (Paris: Editions Leroux: Paris, 1929) {many, many modern patterns derive from this obscure book, which also contains the most detailed publication of the cloth-of-gold pourpoint of Charles du Blois} siglum:harmand-jeanne-darc

Egon Harmuth, Die Armbrust: Ein Handbuch (Akadem. Druck.- und Verlagsanst.: Graz, 1975) ISBN-13 3201009334 9783201009331 siglum:harmuth-armbrust

Albert Hartshorne, “The Sword Belts of the Middle Ages.” The Archaeological Journal 48 (1891) pp. 320-34 {thanks Harry Maniakis} siglum:hartshorne-sword-belts

Jérôme Hayez / Diana Toccafondi, Palazzo Datini a Prato: una casa fatta per durare mille anni (Firenze: Polistampa, 2012) {includes the Datini inventories} siglum: hayez-toccafondi-palazzo-datini-a-prato

Maria Hayward, Dress at the Court of Henry VIII: The Wardrobe Book of the Wardrobe of the Robes prepared by James Worsley in 1516 ... and his Inventory Prepared on 17 January 1521 ... (Maney Publishing: Leeds, 2007) siglum: hayward-dress-at-the-court-of-henry-viii

Maria Hayward, "Rothwell Jack." In Gale R. Owen-Crocker, Elizabeth Jane Coatsworth, Maria Hayward (eds.), Encyclopedia of Dress and Textiles in the British Isles c. 450-1450 (Leiden / Boston: Brill, 2012) pp. 463-464 siglum:enc-dress-textiles-rothwell-jack

Maria Hayward (ed.), The Great Wardrobe Accounts of Henry VII and Henry VIII (London Record Society, 2012) ISBN-13 9780900952524 {covers the years 1498/1499 and 1510/1511, as well as the section of the 1544 account relating to Henry VIII’s campaign in France} siglum: hayward-great-wardrobe-henry-vii

C. M. Helm-Clark, "Medieval Glues Up to 1600 CE," Class Notes - SCA Estrella 23 Collegium, 18 February 2007

Hermani Contractús Conflictus Ovis et Lini An interesting debate poem between wool and flax by an abbot who died on Lake Constance in 1054. I am looking at it for what it says about colour and dying of the two types of cloth (and how this Sumerian genre was transmitted to Catholic Europe!). The author is also known as Hermann the Lame or Hermann of Reichenau. #source siglum:conflictus-ovis-et-lini

Constance B. Hieatt, Brenda Hosington, and Sharon Butler, Pleyn Delit: Medieval Cookery for Modern Cooks. Second Edition. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, 1996. #cooking siglum:hieatt-et-al-pleyn-delit

Ada Bruhn Hoffmeyer, Middelalderens Tvaeggede Svaerd (PhD Dissertation, Copenhagen, 1954) {the pioneering typology of the medieval #sword, unfortunately it was never printed or translated into a world language} siglum: hoffmeyer-svaerd

Randle Holme, The Academy of Armory, or, A Storehouse of Armory and Blazon ... (Chester: 1688) siglum: holme-academy-of-armory

Gerhard Folke Wulf Holtmann, Untersuchung zu mittelalterlichen und frühneuzeitlichen Messern. Dissertationsschrift, Fachbereich Historisch-Philologische Wissenschaften, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (1994) {a study of 1300 knives from the Germanic world with line drawings} siglum: holtmann-zu-messern

Helen Howard, Pigments of Medieval English Wall Painting (Archetype Publications: London, 2003) siglum: howard-pigments

Christine Howard-Davis (ed.) The Carlisle Millennium Project: Excavations in Carlisle, 1998-2001, Volume 2: The Finds. Oxford Archaeology North: Lancaster, 2009. ISBN 9780904220575 siglum: carlisle-milennium-project-2

Howard Household Books: these letters and expense accounts from late 15th century England have been printed several times:

Tony Hunt, Teaching and Learning Latin in Thirteenth-Century England. Three volumes (D.S. Brewer: Woodbridge, Suffolk and Rochester, NY, 1991) {an edition of Latin-English and Latin-French glosses} siglum: hunt-teaching-and-learning-latin

↑ back to top ↑


E. Izarn (ed.) Gustave-A. Prevost (intr.), Le Compte des recettes et dépenses du roi de Navarre en France et en Normandie de 1367 à 1370 (Paris: A. Picard, 1885) colour scan with missing edges and complete B&W scan siglum: izarn-compte-du-roi-de-Navarre

↑ back to top ↑


Wolfgang Jahn, Jutta Schumann, Evamaria Brockhoff (eds.), Edel und Frei. Franken im Mittelalter. Veröffentlichungen zur Bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur 47/04 (Augsburg 2004) ISBN 3-927233-91-9 siglum: jahn-et-al-edel-und-frei

Caroline Johnson, The King's Servants: Men's Dress at the Accession of Henry VIII. A Tudor Tailor Case Study (Fat Goose Press: Guileford, Surrey, 2009) siglum: johnson-the-kings-servants-i

Caroline Johnson, The Queen's Servants: Gentlewomen's Dress at the Accession of Henry VIII. A Tudor Tailor Case Study. Second Edition (Fat Goose Press: Guileford, Surrey, 2016) siglum: johnson-the-queens-servants-ii

Sophie Jolivet, Pour soi vêtir honnêtement à la cour de monseigneur le duc de Bourgogne, Costume et dispositif vestimentaire à la cour de Philippe le Bon de 1430 à 1455. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Université de Bourgogne, 2003. {I have not read this in full (the focus is too late), but check out the et un garde-corps de cuir de cerf pour vêtir sur son pourpoint à armer on page 242 and similarly on page 271} siglum: jolivet-costume–à-la-cour-de-Philippe-le-Bon

Elizabeth Jones, “Farsetto Construction of the Italian Renaissance (1425-1470)” (2002) {useful Italian and English bibliography on doublets with summary for English speakers, strongest on documents and art and on her own experiences imitating these garments} siglum: jones-farsetto-construction

Heather Rose Jones, “Another Look at St. Louis’ Shirt” (2004) {good suppliment to Burnham’s diagram of the shirt of St. Louis, but now see the study by Tina Anderlini who was allowed to handle the original} siglum: jones-st-louis-shirt

↑ back to top ↑


Tasha Dandelion Kelly, The Pourpoint of Charles de Blois: An Adapted Sewing Pattern for Chest Sizes 37-50 (lulu, 2011) siglum: kelly-pourpoint-charles-de-blois

Tasha Dandelion Kelly, “The Tailoring of the Pourpoint of King Charles VI of France Revealed.” Waffen- und Kostümkunde, 55. Band Heft 2 (2013) pp. 153-180 siglum: kelly-pourpoint-charles-vi

Katrin Kania, Kleidung im Mittelalter: Materialien – Konstruktion – Nähtechnik: ein Handbuch (Böhlau Verlag: Wien und Köln, 2010) {very strong on surviving clothing and textiles and offers a reasonable way of drafting single and double garments without modern tools like measuring tapes or paper patterns, but not as interested in texts and art or in quilted and stuffed garments} siglum: kania-kleidung-im-mittelalter

Dave Key, "Mediaeval Cloth: Cloth Types in the Late 15th Century." Dragon: The Voice of the Companie of Saynte George #10 (Summer 2000) pp. 3-9 siglum: key-medieval-cloth

Richard Knowles, "A defensive garment in the Church at Rothwell, West Yorkshire," Journal of the Arms and Armour Society, Vol. 11, no. 5 (June 1985), p. 299-305 {on the Rothwell jack} siglum: knowles-defensive-garment

Eberhard König, "How Did Illuminators Draw? Some Fifteenth-Century Examples, Mostly Flemish," Master Drawings, Vol. 41, No. 3, Early Netherlandish Drawings (Autumn, 2003), pp. 216-227 {very focused on the 15th century and on the most skilled and experimental artists; wisely points out that modern ideas about different media were not necessarily period ideas} siglum: koenig-how-did-illuminators-draw

Jan Kohlmorgen, Der mittelalterliche Reiterschild: Historische Entwicklung von 975 bis 1350 und Anleitung zum Bau eines kampftauglichen Schildes (Wald-Michelbach: Karfunkel-Verlag, 2002) {on shields see also beuing-augustyn-eds-schilde - meighan-technical-note - nickel-reiterschild - schmidt-buckler} siglum: kohlmorgen-mittelalterlicher-ritterschild

Kohout, D., Březinová, H. 2015 "An Assemblage of Medieval Archaeological Textiles from Prague: a Study of Current and Original Colours." In Toim. K. Grömer, F. Pritchard (eds.), Aspects of the Design, Production and Use of Textiles and Clothing from the Bronze Age to the Early Modern Era. NESAT XII. Archaeolingua, vol. 33 (Achaeolingua Alapítvány: Budapest) pp. 331–340 {cited by Rammo as parallel to the textile fragments from London and Tartu} siglum: kohout-brezinova-medieval-textiles-from-prague

Claudia Kusch, Patrizia Mignani, Raffaella Pozzi (eds.), Redire 1427-2009. Ritorno alla luce. Il restauro del Farsetto di Pandolfo III Malatesti. I Quaderni del museo, 2. Museo Civico di Fano: Fano, IT, 2009. {the conservation report on a doublet from a 15th century tomb in Italy, I ordered a copy from Italy in late 2021 but there is an English summary by Andrea Carloni (backed up on the Wayback Machine} siglum: kusch-et-al-farsetto-di-pandolfo-iii-malatesta

↑ back to top ↑


Labarte, Jules (ed.), Inventaire du mobilier de Charles V, roi de France. Collection de Documents Inédits sur l'Histoire de France, Troisième Série, Archéologie (Imprimerie Nationale: Paris, 1879) {dated 1379} siglum: labarte-inventaire-de-charles-v

L.E.S.J. Laborde, Les Ducs de Bourgogne: études sur les lettres, les artes et l’industrie pendant le XVe siècle et plus particulèrement dans le Pays-Bas et le duché de Bourgogne, Seconde Partie, Tome I (Plon Fréres Editeurs: Paris, 1849) / {miscellaneous expenses from the 1380s onwards, note the payment to Christine de Pisan on page 16. There is an index of index of names by profession on p. 523 and an index of names on p. 540} siglum:laborde-ducs-de-bourgogne-2-1

L.E.S.J. Laborde, Les ducs de Bourgogne, études sur les lettres, les arts et l'industrie pendant le XVe siècle et plus particulièrement dans les Pays-Bas et le duché de Bourgogne. Seconde Parte, Tome II (Plon Fréres Editeurs: Paris, 1851) siglum: laborde-ducs-de-bourgogne-2-2

Catherine Lagier, “La manche de l’Eglise de Bussy-Saint-Martin,” 17 May 2017 siglum:lagier-manche-bussy

Maurice Leloir, “A Mediaeval Doublet.” Apollo: The International Magazine of the Arts Vol. 23 Nr. 135 (March 1936) pp. 157-160 {the most important publication in English on the pourpoint of Charles du Blois, with measurements and a pattern taken off the garment different from the pattern in Harmand} siglum:leloir-mediaeval-doublet

Karen Larsdatter, “References to Clothing and Armor in The Canterbury Tales {excellent quick reference to usage in London at the end of the 14th century, which is not always the same as the usage of researchers and reenactors today} siglum:larsdatter-clothing-armour-canterbury-tales

Ulrich Lehnart, Kleidung & Waffen der Spätgotik, II. 1370-1429 (Wald-Michelbach: Karfunkel Verlag, 2003)

René de Lespinasse (ed.), Les métiers et corporations de la ville de Paris: XIVe-XVIIIe siècles. Vol. I: Ordonnances Générales, Métiers de L’Alimentation siglum:de-lespinasse-métiers-de-paris-1

René de Lespinasse (ed.), Les métiers et corporations de la ville de Paris: XIVe-XVIIIe siècles. Vol. II: Orfèvrerie, sculpture, mercerie, ouvriers en métaux, bâtiment et ameublement siglum:de-lespinasse-métiers-de-paris-2

René de Lespinasse (ed.), Les métiers et corporations de la ville de Paris: XIVe-XVIIIe siècles. Vol. III: Tissus, étoffes, vêtements, cuirs et peaux, métiers divers (Imprimerie Nationale: Paris, 1886-1897). {Check out tailors pp. 178ff, pourpontiers pp. 205ff, chaussetiers (hosiers) pp. 218ff, friperers (who refurbished and resold old clothes) pp. 421ff} siglum:de-lespinasse-métiers-de-paris-3

Anne Leturque, "Le savoir technique dans l’art de peindre au Moyen Âge : les modes opératoires décrits dans le Liber Diversarum Artium (MS. H277, bibliothèque de l’école de médecine de Montpellier)." Situ [En ligne], vol. 22 (2013)

Emil Levy, Provinzalisches Supplement-Wörterbuch: Berichtungen und Ergänzungen zu Raynouards Lexique Roman. Many volumes (O.R. Reisland: Leipzig, 1894 and later) siglum: levy-provenzalisches-woerterbuch

Jean Liebel, Springalds and Great Crossbows. Royal Armouries Monograph 5 (1998). Juliet Vale tr. siglum:liebel-springalds-and-great-crossbows

Ronald W. Lightbrown, Medieval European Jewellery: With a Catalogue of the Collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Victoria and Albert Publications: 1992) {I have not read this but it is said to be good} siglum:lightbrown-european-jewelry

Rex Lingwood, “John Waterer and the ‘Cuir Bouilli’ Confusion.” {argues that surviving hardened leather objects from Europe fall into two families produced by two different processes, and that we can’t assume that either existed since time immemorial} siglum:lingwood-cuir-bouilli

Mike Loades, The Crossbow (Osprey Publishing, 2018) ISBN 978-1472824608 siglum: loades-the-crossbow

↑ back to top ↑


Sir James Gow Mann, The Funeral Achievements of Edward the Black Prince. 3rd ed., rev. London: Clowes, 1951. OCLC 931194576 {this booklet describes the great helm, coat armour, sheath, shield, and gauntlets which were displayed with his tomb in Canterbury Cathedral until they were replaced by replicas in 1954} siglum: mann-funeral-achievements

Maria Socorro Mantilla de los Rios y Rojas et al., Vestiduras Pontificales del Arzobispo Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada. Siglo XIII: Su Estudio y Restauracion (Madrid: Instituto Conservación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales, 1995) {on a 13th century shirt} siglum: mantilla-de-los-rios-y-rojas-vestiduras-pontificales

Mappae Clavicula: this Latin collection of recipes preserves some very old material and some more recent. Some details were lost as it passed from workers to scribes writing in different languages. siglum: mappae-clavicula

Albert Lecoy de la Marche, “Le Bagage d’un étudiant en 1347.” Mémoires de la Société nationale des antiquaires de France (1889) 5e Série 10e Tome ( = Tome 50) pp. 162-182 {a student from Paris died suddenly on the road on 6 November 1347, and after one look through his saddlebags they decided to inventory his property very carefully. I have transcribed some of the Latin and French under Sources} siglum:de-la-marche-bagage-dun-étudiant

Sue M. Margeson, Norwich Households: Medieval and Post-Medieval Finds from Norwich Survey Excavations 1971-78. East Anglian Archaeology 58. Norwich Survey: Norwich, 1993. ISBN: 952069504 {miscellaneous catalogue from a dry site, basic commentary on classes of finds such as aiglets} siglum:margeson-norwich-households

Maureen Fennell Mazzaoui, The Italian Cotton Industry in the Later Middle Ages, 1100-1600 (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1981) ISBN 9780521089609 {essential reading for anyone interested in trecento clothing, especially the raw materials and guild regulations} siglum: mazzaoui-italian-cotton-industry

Joumana Medlej, Inks & Paints of the Middle-East (self-published 2020) {overview of Abbasid recipes for painters and scribes, oriented towards artists} siglum: medlej-inks-and-paints

Meek, Christine (2019) “Regulating and Refashioning Dress: Sumptuary Legislation and Its Enforcement in Fourteenth- and Early fifteenth-Century Lucca.” In Gale R. Owen-Crocker and Marien Clegg Hyer (eds.), Refashioning Medieval and Early Modern Dress: A Tribute to Robin Netherton (Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk) pp. 211-235 siglum: meek-sumptuary-legislation-lucca

Meighan, Melissa S. (1992) "Appendix: Technical Note." In Jane Watkins (ed.), Studies in European Arms and Armor: The C. Otto von Kienbusch Collection in the Philadelphia Museum of Art (Philadelphia Museum of Art: Philiadelphia, PA, 1992) pp. 143-151 {on the construction of a 16th century Italian rotella shield from Prague, see also uzielli-et-al-laminated-wood-parade-shields} siglum: meighan-technical-note

Merrifield, Mary P. (1849) Original treatises, dating from the XIIth to the XVIIIth centuries, (o)n the arts of painting ... 2 volumes (John Murray: London, 1849; reprinted by Dover Publications as Medieval and Renaissance Treatises on the Arts of Painting: Original Texts with English Translations) - {See especially book 7 of the Segreti per Colori aka. Bolognese MS pp. 478ff eg. pp. 490-493 gesso sottile and parchment like stained glass windows, pp. 466-677 "gesso, with which the tailors mark their thread"} siglum: merrifield-on-painting

M. J. de Mendonca, O Loudel do Rei D. Joao I. Lisboa (1973) {Conservation report on same garment described by Teixara 1999. Said to consist of “a few layers of linen with combed wool quilted in between, and it had a green woolen fabric as outer shell.”} siglum: de-mendonca-loudel-do-rei-joao

Christian Meyer (ed.), Das Stadtbuch von Augsburg, insbesondere das Stadtrecht vom Jahre 1276 (Augsburg: F. Butsch Sohn Verlag, 1872) siglum: meyer-das-stadtbuch-von-augsburg {#lawcode #stadtrecht}

Arkadiusz Michalak et al., “A fourteenth century Baselard from Lake Ostrowite in Northern Poland,” Acta Militaria Mediaevalia XIII (2017) pp. 165-180 {on a quillion dagger with a well-made copper-alloy chape and locket} siglum: michalak-et-al-baselard

Ralph Moffat, James Spriggs and Sonia O’Connor, “The use of Baleen for Arms, Armour and Heraldic Crests in Medieval Britain.” The Antiquaries Journal, Volume 88 (September 2008) pp. 207-215 DOI: 10.1017/S0003581500001402 siglum:moffat-et-al-baleen-in-britain {baleen, a keratinous material sometimes misleadingly called whalebone, had a variety of uses in the later middle ages}

Luca Mola, The Silk Industry in Renaissance Venice (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000) {non vidi set Gregorius Mele condiscipulis comendat, addresses the lower grades of silk cloth as well as the famous patterned weaves, satins, and velvets won by the richest} siglum: mola-silk-industry-venice

Michel Mollat (ed.), Comptes généraux de l’Etat bourguignon entre 1416 et 1420 (Paris: Imprimerie nationale/Libraire C. Klincksieck, 1965-1966). {the prèmier partie (1965) page 197 is said to talk about pourpoints stuffed with cotton} siglum: mollat-comptes-generaux

Monnas, Lisa (1989) “Silk Cloths Purchased for the Great Wardrobe of the Kings of England, 1325-1462.” Textile History, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 283-307 {useful comments on the meaning of different terms in these unpublished texts} siglum: monnas-silk-cloths-england

Monnas, Lisa (2008) Merchants, Princes, and Painters: Silk Fabrics in Italian and Northern Paintings, 1300-1500 siglum: monnas-silk-fabrics-in-paintings

Lisa Monnas, "Embroideries for Edward III." In M. A. Michael (ed.), The Age of Opus Anglicanum. Harvey Miller Publications, 2016 pp. 36-73. ISBN: 978-1-909400-41-2 NON VIDI said to have information from the unpublished Great Wardrobe Accounts. siglum: monnas-embroideries-edward-III

Giovanni Monticolo (ed.), I capitolari delle arti veneziane: sottoposte alla giustizia e poi alla giustizia vecchia dalle origini al MCCCXXX (Roma: Tipografo del Senato, 1896) #documents #regulations {the rules of the zuparii (makers of quilted clothing) of Venice from 1219 onwards, plus the sartores “tailors,” balistarii “crossbow-makers”, dyers, etc.; the scan on Google Books is not usable} siglum: monticolo-capitolari-veneziane

Quita Mould, Ian Carlisle, and Esther Cameron (eds.) Leather and Leatherworking in Anglo-Scandinavian and Medieval York. The Archaeology of York, Volume 17 The Small Finds, Fasc. 16 Craft, Industry, and Everyday Life. York Archaeological Trust: Walmgate, York, 2003. {sword sheaths are mostly before this period but show the development and the stitching is well described} siglum: mould-et-al-leather-and-leatherworking-in-york

Eugène Müntz, Les collections des Médicis au Quinzieme Siècle: le musée - la bibliothèque - le mobilier (Jules Rouam and Gilert Wood & Co.: Paris and London, 1888) {lots of clothing, arms, and armour with brief descriptions including some giuberelli} siglum: muentz-collections-des-medicis

John H. Munro, “The anti-red shift– to the ‘Dark Side’: Colour changes in Flemish luxury woollens, 1300 – 1550.” Medieval Clothing and Textiles, Vol. 3, No. 1 (2007) pp. 55-98 {study of the colours of cloth purchased by Flemish towns based on exhaustive archival research … I wish he made the basis for his statements about the width of cloths and length of different yards and ells clearer, but this reflects 40 years of thought and research and he was very generous to make it available for free before his death in 2013. Notably, he rejects the idea that black cloth was expensive: in the archives he has read, the expensive colours were ‘scarlet’ and ‘in grain’ and the various blacks, browns, violets, blues, greens, and reds all had prices which were statistically indistinguishable from one another. You can get a sense for the kind of person he was on his faculty page} siglum: munro-anti-red-shift

John H. Munro, “The Medieval Scarlet and the Economics of Sartorial Splendour.” This was first published in a Gedenkschrift, namely N.B. Harte and K.G. Ponting (eds.), Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Honour of Professor E.M. Carus-Wilson (Pasold Studies in Textile History 2) (Heinemann Educational Books: London, 1983) pp. 13-70 and reprinted in his collected articles (Textiles, Towns, and Trade: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Aldershot UK, 1994) {the standard article on the highest-quality woolen cloth known as scarlet, and its relationship to cloth dyed in grain (with kermes)} siglum: munro-medieval-scarlet

↑ back to top ↑


Kristen Brooke Neuschel, Living by the Sword: Weapons and Material Culture in France and Britain, 600–1600 (Cornell University Press, 2020) non vidi, Bret Devereaux ad lectores commendat siglum: neuschel-living-by-the-sword

Helmut Nickel, Der mittelalterliche reiterschild des Abendlandes, PhD thesis Berlin 1958 {said to be the basis of kohlmorgen-mittelalterlicher-ritterschild} siglum: nickel-reiterschild

Nickel, Helmut (1995) "The Seven Shields of Behaim: New Evidence," Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 30 (1995) {see also faltermeier-meyer-restoration-behaim-shields} siglum: nickel-seven-shields-of-behaim

Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas, Privy purse expenses of Elizabeth of York: wardrobe accounts of Edward the Fourth. With a memoir of Elizabeth of York, and notes (London: W. Pickering, 1830) siglum: nicolas-elizabeth-of-york-and-edward-iv

Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas, “Observations on the Institution of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.” Archaeologia: or, Miscellaneous tracts Relating to Antiquity xxi (1846) pp. 1-163;view=1up;seq=12 {for the past 200 years, professional scholars have been telling each other that someone should really publish and analyze more of these. Until then, this article and Stella Mary Newton’s book is what we have for my period} siglum: nicolas-order-of-the-garter

Stella Mary Newton, Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince: A Study of the Years 1340 to 1365 (several printings, most recently Boydell Press 2012) {the work of a self-educated dress historian at the end of a long career, this book is especially strong on how people reacted to the new fashions of this period, but some of the details can be quibbled with; she summarizes many unpublished sources in English} siglum: newton-fashion-black-prince

Netherton, Robin (????) “The View from Herjolfsnes: Greenland’s Translation of the European Fitted Fashion.” Medieval Clothing and Textiles 4 siglum:“netherton-view-from-herjolfsnes”

Nockert, Margareta (1985) Bockstensmannen och Hans Dräkt (“The Bocksten Man and His Clothing”) (Stiftelsen Hallands länsmuseer, Halmstad och Varberg: Falkenberg, Sweden) {the essential source on this murder victim who would have been in fashion in the early 14th century. Everyone who re-draws these changes something and leaves out some of the numbers} siglum: nockert-bockstensmannen

A.V.B Norman, The Rapier and Small-Sword, 1460-1820 (Arms and Armour Press, Lionel Leventhal Limited: London, 1980) {covers sword hilts and scabbards, but not blades} siglum: norman-rapier-and-small-sword

Nutz, Beatrice (n.d.) Transcriptions of various sumptuary laws (Kleiderordnungen) ranging from 13th and 14th century Nürnberg to Maximillian’s law of 1518 siglum: nutz-kleiderordnungen

Beatrice Nutz, “Jagdkleidung Kaiser Maximilian I. / Hunting garments of Emperor Maximilian I” (2019) {edition and translation of a manuscript on hunting by emperor Maximillian from 1508, partilly in his own hand} siglum: nutz-jagdkleidung-kaiser-maxilian

↑ back to top ↑


Ewart Oakeshott, The Archaeology of Weapons siglum: oakeshott-archaeology-of-weapons

Ewart Oakeshott, The Sword in the Age of Chivalry (ed. pr. 1964, second edition The Boydell Press: Woodbridge, 1994) {probably the best introduction to the late medieval #sword in English, very clear on his famous typology and its limits} siglum:oakeshott-sword-age-chivalry

Ewart Oakeshott, Records of the Medieval Sword (The Boydell Press, 1991) siglum:oakeshott-records-medieval-sword

Origo, Iris (1957) The Merchant of Prato: Francesco di Marco Datini (Cape: London) {available in most major languages} siglum:origo-merchant-of-prato

Else Østergård, Woven into the Earth: Textile finds in Norse Greenland {to be read with Medieval Garments Reconstructed} siglum:woven-into-the-earth

Patrick Ottaway and Nicola Rogers, Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Finds from Medieval York. The Archaeology of York, Volume 17 The Small Finds, Fasc. 15 (Council for British Archaeology, 2002) {Locks and keys, scissors and shears, knives, firesteels (“strike-a-lights”), ceramics and glassware, little metal mounts for leatherwork …} siglum:ottaway-rogers-ay-17-15

Gale R. Owen-Crocker, Elizabeth Jane Coatsworth, Maria Hayward (eds.), Encyclopedia of Dress and Textiles in the British Isles c. 450-1450 (Leiden / Boston: Brill, 2012) {Useful entries on Aketon, Doublet, Gambeson, Jack, Pourpoint, etc. with some unpublished or very obscure lists of materials, and on weights, measures, and types of fabric} siglum:encyclopedia-of-dress-and-textiles

↑ back to top ↑


Paston Letters: these letters from a family of gentry in late 15th century Norfolk have information on social history and the things they bought and sold and fought in. An old edition is available on Project Gutenberg, a newer edition is Norman Davis (ed.) (1971). The Paston Letters and Papers of the Fifteenth Century, Part I. Oxford: Clarendon Press. siglum: paston-letters

Paulerinus (Pavel Žídek) Liber viginti artium (c. 1455-1471): This Latin encyclopedia with Czech glosses includes a description of 223 professions including pavise-makers. There are several partial editions (thanks to Atelier Vincent de Beauvais for the list). Unfortunately, many of the words in the section on tailoring are in the editor's list of words she could not find in any other Latin text.

Oskar Pausch, Das älteste italienisch-deutsche Sprachbuch: Eine Überlieferung aus dem Jahre 1424 nach Georg von Nürnberg (Böhlau Verlag: Vienna, 1972) = Georg von Nürnberg's German-Italian phrasebook from 1424 {Ariella Elema recommends, has entries like: la spada darme = daz bapen swert 'the arming sword'; la spada da scrimier = daz schirm swert 'the fencing sword'; la spada da doman = der paiden henter 'the two-handed sword'; la spada da chavallo = daz raisswert 'the riding/travelling sword'} siglum: pausch-sprachbuch

Harold L. Peterson, Daggers & Fighting Knives of the Western World: from the Stone Age to 1900 (Bonanza Books: New York, 1968) siglum: peterson-daggers-and-fighting-knives {a thoughtful hobbyist's book with lots of B&W photos and simple typologies but no measurements. Peterson had read a lot of research literature but does not cite it. Very influential on people interested in medieval and early modern edged weapons today}

Ingo Petri, "Vier VLFBERHT-Schwerter aus der Sammlung des Museums für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin." Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica 49 (2017) pp. 137-179 c/o Roland Warzecha #viking #sword siglum: petri-vier-ulfberht-schwerter

Elisabeth Pfeiffer, Ellen und ihre Vergleichungen (St. Katharninen Scripta: 1990) OCLC 243447238 {cp. Zupko, I have never been at a library which had this} siglum: pfeiffer-ellen

Ernest Petit, Les itinéraires de Philippe le Hardi et de Jean sans Peur, ducs de Bourgogne (1363-1419) (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1888) siglum: petit-itineraires

Rosita Levi Pisetzky, Storia del Costume in Italia, 5 volumi (Istituto Editoriale Italiano {Treccani}, 1974/1975) {the standard reference on written, carved, and painted source, if you are serious about this subject and can read Italian you need to borrow this. It has probably 80% of the artwork which floats around the Internet today (and some art which most people interested in medieval clothing do not know) and a mass of quotes from contemporary documents and literature, and it treats specific places and times in depth rather than dancing over 500 years in 250 pages. It was reprinted in 2005 by the Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome. For a table of contents see Volume 2 covers the 1300s and the 1400s} siglum: levi-pisetzky-storia-del-costume

Ploss, E. (1989) Ein Buch von alter Farben – Technologie der Textilfarben im Mittelalter, München, 1967 (6e édition, München, 1989).

Portoghesi, Lucia. "L'abbigliamento funebre di Diego Cavaniglia: come spunto per un'analisi del vestire quattrocentesco." Ars Historiae Oct/Dec 2006 pp. 58-63 siglum: portoghesi-abbigliamento-funebre-di-diego-cavaniglia

“Prenegard, prenegard, Thus bere I myn baselard” siglum:prenegard-prenegard

Giacomo di Prampero, "Inventario del castello di Osoppo (1412)" and "Inventario degli oggetti esistenti nel castello di Gemona (1390)" Memorie storiche forogiuliesi 9 (1913) pp. 133-137 siglum: di-prampero-inventarii-delli-castelli

Bernard and Henri Prost, Inventaires, mobiliers et extraits des comptes des ducs de Bourgogne de la maisson de Valois, 1363-1477, 2 vols (Paris: Ernest Leroux Editeur, 1902 and 1913) or {digitized volume covers the years 1378-1390, the other volume covers 1363-1377. That volume is mostly available in France (OCLC 491372399 and OCLC 492126270) but there is one in the British Library (OCLC 59821093) and one in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (OCLC 162859701)}

siglum: prost-inventaires-des-ducs-de-bourgogne

Stuart W. Pyhrr and José-A. Godoy, with appendix by Silvio Leydi, Heroic Armour of the Italian Renaissance: Filippo Negroli and his Contemporaries (The Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York, 1998) siglum: pyhrr-godoy-heroic-armour

↑ back to top ↑


Model bibliography entry siglum:an-id


Riina Rammo, Textile Finds from Medieval Cesspits in Tartu: Technology, Trade and Consumption (PhD thesis, University of Tartu, 2015) siglum: rammo-textile-finds-from-tartu {many striped woolen cloths (rays), but often refers readers to hard-to-find articles for details. There is a handy collection of photos on Tekijä Mervi's blog Hibernaatiopesäke}

Riina Rammo, "Ambiguous stripes – a sign for fashionable wear in medieval Tartu," in Gitte Hansen, Steven P. Ashby and Irene Baug (eds.), Everyday Products in the Middle Ages: Crafts, Consumption and the Individual in Northern Europe, c. AD 800-1600 (Oxford and Philadelphia: Oxbow Books, 2015) pp. 175-191 rammo-ambiguous-stripes

Rammo, R. 2012 "Fragments of clothing from medieval Tartu (Estonia)." In A. Haak & R. Rammo. (eds.), Medieval Urban Textiles in Northern Europe. Muinasaja teadus vol. 22. Tarto University: Tartu, pp. 125–146. ISBN-13 978-9985-9877-8-0

Rast-Eicher, Antoinette, Tidow, Klaus 2011. "Mühlberg Ensemble. Die Textilien." In Rainer Atzbach, Ingolf Ericsson (eds.), Die Ausgrabungen im Mühlberg-Ensemble, Kempten (Allgäu). Metall, Holz, Textil (Dr. Rudolf Habelt GMBH, Bonn) pp. 285–351 ISBN 9783774937567 {cited by Rammo as parallel to the textile fragments from Tartu- there is a table of contents with beautiful closeup photos at} siglum: rast-eicher-tidow-muehlberg-textilien

M. Raynouard, Lexique Roman ou Dictionnaire de la Langue des Troubadours, comparée avec les autres Langues de l’Europe Latine. Many volumes (Silvestre Libraire: Paris) siglum: raynouard-lexique-roman

Reed, Paul (2020) "The Knowledge of Carpenters from the Early Medieval Period to the Eighteenth Century in Setting Out Roofs and Buildings Without Geometry and Numerical Measurement." Vernacular Architecture, Vol. 51, Nr. 1, pp. 30–49. doi:10.1080/03055477.2020.18306 {a handy article on how proportional drafting can be applied to architecture (make a beam 9/16 as long as another beam, not a certain number of absolute units long)} siglum: reed-knowledge-of-carpenters

Reed, Ronald (1972) Ancient Skins, Parchments, and Leathers (Seminar Press: London and New York) {a classic study with translations of many unpublished texts} siglum: reed-skins-parchments-leathers

Susan D. Reed, From Chaperone to Chaplets: Aspects of Men's Headdress, 1400–1519 (Master of Science thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, 1992) siglum: reed-chaperone-to-chaplets

Susan D. Reed, “15th-Century Men’s Doublets: An Overview” (1994, 2004) {very important bibliography for the 15th century, the list of artwork is a good starting point} siglum:reed-mens-doublets

W. E. Rhodes, “The Inventory of the Jewels and Wardrobe of Queen Isabella (1307-8).” English Historical Review 12 (1897) pp. 517-521 siglum: rhodes-wardrobe-queen-isabella

Roland Thomas Richardson, The Medieval Inventories of the Tower of London, 1320-1410 (PhD thesis, University of York, 2012) siglum:richardson-medieval-inventories

Thom Richardson, The Tower Armoury in the Fourteenth Century (The Royal Armouries, 2018) siglum:richardson-tower-armoury

Richardson, Thom (2015) "Armour in Henry V’s Great Wardrobe," Arms & Armour, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 22-29 siglum: richardson-armour-henry-v

Holger Richter, Die Hornbogenarmbrust: Geschichte und Technik. 2nd edition (Hörnig-Verlag: Wiesbaden, 2012) siglum: richter-hornbogenarmbrust

Ansgar Reiß and Tobias Schönauer, Plattenrock, Buckler & Conquistador – Aus der Schatzkammer des Bayerischen Armeemuseums (Bayerisches Armeemuseum, Ingolstadt, 2021) ISBN-13 978-3-96049-090-6 free pdf and printer's online store {article on a pair of Panzerhose and a pair of plates from Bavaria, thanks Roland Warzecha; an English translation is in progress}

Emil Franz Rössler (ed.), Das Altprager Stadtrecht aus dem XIV. Jh. Deutsche Rechtsdenkmäler aus Böhmen und Mähren, Band 1 (Prag: J.G. Calve'sche Buchhandlung, 1845) siglum:roessler-altprager-stadtrecht

Johannes Rothe, Der Ritterspiegel. Edited, translated and commented by Christoph Huber and Pamela Kalnig (Walter de Gruyter: Berlin 2009) {an adaptation of Vegetius including a description of polished armour found by Blaz Berlec in 2021} siglum: rothe-ritterspiegel-huger-kalnig

Otto Rüdiger, Die ältesten Hamburgischen Zunftrollen und Brüderschaftsstatuten (Kellinghusen's Stiftung: Hamburg, 1874) {guild rules}

↑ back to top ↑


Franco Sacchetti, Novelle (Italy, before 1400). Collection of 256 (originally 300) short stories with a moral at the end. siglum: sacchetti-novelle

Luciano Salvatici (ed.), Posate, Pugnali, Coltelli da Caccia del Museo Nazionale del Bargello. Museo Nazionale del Bargello: Florence, 1999. ISBN 88 7242 285X. {half a dozen relevant knives and daggers with one B&W photo and a paragraph of text apiece} siglum: salvatici-posate-pugnali-coltelli

Barbara Santich, The Original Mediterranean Cuisine: Medieval Recipes for Today. Second Edition (Equinox Publishing, 2018) {whereas The Forme of Cury and Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books contain English recipes, this draws on manuscripts from Catalonia and Italy; she gives the original text, a translation, and her own recipe inspired by it #cooking #kitchen} siglum: santich-original-mediterranean-cuisine

Ferdinando Sartini (ed.) Statuti dell’arte dei rigattieri e linaioli di Firenze (1296-1340). Regia Deputazione di Storia Partia per la Toscana, Fonti e studi sule corporazione artigiane del medio evo, II (Florence: Felice le Monnier, ed., 1940) #documents #regulations {the riggatieri repaired and resold used goods and made new quilted clothing (they combined the roles of fripperers and junk-dealers in England and France); their rule is not as useful as the French rules, but is in easy notarial Latin, and the publication date may explain why the index only covers the first 1/3 of the alphabet} siglum: sartini-statuti-dellarte

Mario Scalini, „Note sulla Formazione dell'Armatura di Piastra in Italia (c. 1380-c. 1420),“ Waffen- und Kostümkunde 22 (1980) pp. 15-26 {the oldest evidence for asymetric pauldrons}

Schmidt, Herbert (2015) The Book of the Buckler (Wyvern Media) ISBN-13 978-0-9929918-3-8 siglum: schmidt-buckler

Christiane Schnack. Mittelalterliche Lederfunde aus Schleswig – Futterale, Riemen, Taschen und andere Objekte. Ausgrabung Schild 1971-1975. Ausgrabungen in Schleswig – Berichte und Studien, Band 13. Wachholz Verlag: Neumünster, 1998. ISBN-13 3-529-01463-X. {prices as of summer 2017 are extortionate on Bookfinder, but AntikMakler in Germany has copies for EUR 39,00} siglum: schnack-lederfunde-aus-schleswig

Christiane Schnack, Mittelalterliche Lederfunde aus Konstanz (Grabung Fischmarkt). Materialhefte zur Archäologie in Baden-Württemberg, H. 26 (Konrad Theiss Verlag: Stuttgart, 1994) siglum: schnack-lederfunde-aus-konstanz

Schulze-Dörlamm, Mechthild (1995) Das Reichsschwert: Ein Herrschaftszeichen des Saliers Heinrich IV. und des Welfen Otto IV. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen. {Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani recommends on the ‘Sword of St. Maurice’ and its gold-plated olivewood scabbard in Vienna} siglum:“schulze-dörlamm-reichsschwert”

Margaret Scott, Medieval Dress and Fashion. The British Library: London, 2007. {chatty, and with reading lists instead of footnotes, but has high-resolution photos of helpful art and thoughtful comments on the period 840-1570 CE} siglum: scott-medieval-dress-and-fashion

Denis-François Secousse (ed.) Ordonnances des rois de France de la troisième race (Paris) septième volume (1383-1394)], huitième volume (1395-1403), and neuvième volume (1404-1411) {the ancien regime had its weaknesses, but they did manage to print all the laws of the House of Valois before that trouble at the forks of the Ohio. These volumes can be searched for words such as tailleur, cousturier, and pourpointier. The second volume has an edict of maximum prices for making and furring clothing and the third volume (King Jean, 1355 to 8 April 1364)) has “Lettres qui petmittent aux Cousturiers, (Tailleurs) de faire & de vendre des Doublez (Paris, September 1358)” (letters which allows the cousturiers or tailors to make and sell doublets} siglum: secousse-ordonnances-des-rois-de-france

Jens Sensfelder, Crossbows in the Royal Netherlands Army Museum (2008) siglum:sensfelder-crossbows-rnam

Hubert Silvestre. "Le Ms Bruxellensis 10147-58 (S. XII-XIII) et son 'Compendium artis picturae'." Bulletin de la Commission royale d'histoire. Académie royale de Belgique. Tome 119, 1954. pp. 95-140 {On a manuscript on illumination from circa 1200. Mentions the possibility that Theophilius book I has a separate origin from the other books} siglum: xxx

Elisabeth Singer, "Die Setztartschen des Wiener Bürgerlichen Zeughauses: Geschichte, Bedeutung, Konservierung." In Robert Waissenburger (ed.), Studien 79/80 aus dem Historischen Museum der Stadt Wien. Wiener Schriften Heft 44 (Jugend & Volk: Wien and München, 1980) pp. 63-90 {non vidi} siglum: singer-setztarteschen-des-wiener-zeughauses

Jeffrey L. Singman and Will McLean, Daily Life in Chaucer’s England. Daily Life through History Series. London and Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1995. siglum: singman-and-mclean-daily-life-in-chaucers-england {a one-stop shop for late 14th century England}

Judith Spencer (tr.), The Four Seasons of the House of Cerruti. Revised translation (Facts on File Publications: New York, NY and Bicester, England, 1984) {a facsimile and translation of the Tacuinum in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna} siglum: four-seasons-house-cerruti

Konrad Spindler and Harald Stadler (eds.), Das Brigantinen-Symposium auf Schloss Tyrol, Nearchos Sonderheft 9 (2004) siglum: spindler-stadler-brigantinen-symposium

Staniland, Kay (1991) Medieval Craftsmen: Embroiderers. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, ON and Buffalo, NY {Excellent affordable illustrated introduction focused on England, the only problem is that its not cited and has a very basic bibliography. #embroidery} siglum: staniland-embroiderers

Matthew Strickland and Robert Hardy, The Great Warbow: from Hastings to the Mary Rose (Sutton Publishing: Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire, 2005) siglum: strickland-hardy-great-warbow

Douglas W. Strong, “An Analysis of 1300 Effigies Dated Between 1300 and 1450.” siglum: strong-1300-effigies

Susan Moshe Stuard, Gilding the Market: Luxury and Fashion in Fourteenth-Century Italy (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006) ISBN 9780812239003 {chatty book on material culture by someone who mainly works with written sources} siglum: stuard-gilding-the-market

Stratford, Jenny (ed.) (1993) The Bedford Inventories: The Worldly Goods of John, Duke of Bedford, Regent of France (1389-1435). Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London, no. 49 (Society of Antiquaries of London: London) #document #inventory {not very interesting unless you like luxurious church fittings} siglum: stratford-bedford-inventories

Isis Sturtewagen, All Together Respectably Dressed: Fashion and Clothing in Bruges during the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. Doctoral dissertation, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Arts, Department of History, 2016 {this book focuses on inventories from the mid-15th-century onwards, but I encourage my gentle readers to buy the printed version as soon as it appears} siglum: sturtewagen-fashion-and-clothing-in-bruges

Lois Swales and Zoe Kuhn Williams, Fingerloop Braids {Excerpts from "Tak V Bowes" and two 17th century manuscripts for silkwomen} siglum: swales-williams-fingerloop-braids

↑ back to top ↑


Pseudo-Taillevent, Le Viandier - translation at {this cookbook was continually edited from around 1300 to the first printed edition in 1486, at some point it was attributed to the 14th-century cook Guillaume Tirel called Taillevent} siglum: ps-taillevent-le-viandier

Heinrich der Teichner, Gedichte (d. ca. 1372-1378, Vienna): Die Gedichte Heinrichs des Teichners, Band 3. Hrsg. von Heinrich Niewöhner, (Deutsche Texte des Mittelalters 48), Berlin 1956 siglum: teichner-ed-niewoehner

Maria Emília Amaral Teixeira, tr. Isabel Motta, O loudel de D. João I/The Loudel of D. João I. 3rd edition (Museu de Alberto Sampaio, 1999) ISBN 972-776-012-0 {a sleeveless quilted garment said to have been dedicated after the battle of Aljubarrota between Castilian and Anglo-Portugese forces in 1385} siglum: teixeira-loudel-de-d-joao

Theophilius, On Diverse Arts: This Latin treatise has been translated into English as John G. Hawthorne and Cyril Stanley Smith (tr.), Theophilius on Divers Arts: The Foremost Medieval Treatise on Painting, Glassmaking and Metalwork. Dover Publications Inc: New York, 1979. A Latin transcription of Theophilius Presbyter de diversis artibus, vel schedula diversarum artium, libri III is available on Bibliotheca Augustana (based on Hendrie's edition published in 1847). A better edition is C.R. Dodwell (ed.), Theophilius de diversis artibus: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., London, 1961). There are also German-Latin parallel texts eg. the edition and translation of Albert Ilg siglum: theophilius-de-diversis-artibus

Manuscripts of Theophilius

Augustin Thierry (ed.), Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du tiers état: prèmière série, chartes, coutumes, actes municipaux, statuts des corporations d’arts et metiers des villes et communes de France, région du Nord. Tome deuxième (Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1853) {rule of the pourpointiers of Amiens from Febuary 1428/1429} siglum: thierry-recueil-des-monuments-2

Augustin Thierry (ed.), Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du tiers état: prèmière série, chartes, coutumes, actes municipaux, statuts des corporations d’arts et metiers des villes et communes de France, région du Nord. Tome quatrième (Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1870) {Table of contents lists rules for glovers (1478), pourpointiers (c. 1480), armourers (who also made scabbards), and drapers-chaussers (1497). They also have a sumptuary law from 1467 but its not very detailed.} siglum: thierry-recueil-des-monuments-4

Daniel V. Thompson, The Practice of Tempera Painting (Yale University Press: New Haven, CT, 1936; reprinted Dover Publications: New York, NY, 1962) {classic retelling of cennini-libro-dell-arte, especially useful when it describes a modern equivalent of Cennini's processes which often replaces Cennini's process in other retellings} siglum: thompson-practice-of-tempera-painting

Hilde Thunem, “Recreating Viking Clothing” siglum: thunem-viking-clothing

Sarah Thursfield, The Medieval Tailor’s Assistant: Common Garments 1100-1480. 2nd Edition, Revised and Expanded (Crowood Press, 2015) available from publisher {I have mixed feelings about this book, it teaches practical sewing skills and good philosophy like ‘don’t obsess about finding exactly the right material’ but her doublets are not shaped like originals- I think her 'sloper-based patterning' is not the best approach for this period} siglum: thursfield-medieval-tailors-assistant

Robert W. Trump, The Annotated Arnold: A Commentary on Patterns of Fashion 1560-1620 by Janet Arnold (self-published, 1987; second edition 1999) {a detailed critical review of arnold-patterns-of-fashion-3. Points out that she does not provide information systematically or explain how she created patterns for existing garments. Notes when her drawings of how the garments would have looked when new do not match her pattern drawings or the pattern drawings do not make a workable garment. Shows that the interpretation of the hanging sleeve / manga da armar on page 5 right does not match the art or the Spanish cutting plan it is based upon. Since then at least one garment which she saw as authentic has been reinterpreted as stage costume from the 19th century (#9 p. 70 a jacket, LACMA M.63.49)} siglum: trump-annotated-arnold

↑ back to top ↑


Uzielli, Luca / Cardinali, Elisa / Vici, Paolo Dionisi / Fioravanti, Marco / Salvioli, Nicola (2008) "Structure, mock-up model and environment-induced deformations of Italian laminated wood parade shields from the 16th century." COST IE0601 Wood in Culture Heritage, Braga (PT) (2008) {on wooden rotelle shields, see also meighan-technical-note} siglum: uzielli-et-al-laminated-wood-parade-shields

↑ back to top ↑


Ina Vanden Berghe and Beatrix Nutz, "The Hidden Colours of Lengberg Castle, Austria." In Karina Grömer and Frances Pritchard (eds.) Aspects of the Design, Production and Use of Textiles and Clothing from the Bronze Age to the Early Modern Era. NESAT 12 (Achaeolingua Alapítvány: Budapest, 2015) pp. 51-63 {focused on wool and silk textiles but mentions blue linen and blue linen thread} siglum: vanden-berghe-nutz-hidden-colours-of-lengberg

Marco Vignola, Riflessioni sulla basilarda. Analisi tipologiche e spunti ricostruttivi (Bookstones: Rimini, 2016) {booklet on basilards with a typology, photos of surviving examples, and details for bladesmiths} siglum: vignola-riflessioni-sulla-basilarda

Marco Vignola, Armature e armorari nella Milano medievale: Storia di famiglie, signa, magli e acciaio (Edizioni dell’Orso: Alessandria, IT, 2017) ISBN 978-88-6274-762-2 siglum: vignola-armature-e-armorari-nella-milano

Robin Vogelzang tr., Joan Santanach ed., The Book of Sent Soví: Medieval Recipes from Catalonia (Barcino-Tamesis, 2008) ISBN-13 9781855661646 #cooking siglum: vogelzang-book-of-sent-soví

Marquita Volken, Archaeological Footwear: Development of Shoe Patterns and Styles from Prehistory til the 1600’s (SPA Uitgevers, 2014) ISBN-13 978-9089321176 siglum: volken-archaeological-footwear

Marquita Volken, “Arming Shoes of the Fifteenth Century.” Acta Periodica Duellatorum 5.2 (December 2017) pp. 25-45 {by a very respected expert in shoes, but her friends in armour seem unhappier about medieval shoes than my friends in armour} siglum:volken-arming-shoes

Marquita Volken and Olaf Goubitz, Covering the Blade: Archaeological Leather Sheaths and Scabbards (SPA Uitgevers, 2020) ISBN-13 9789089320513 (Biblio) siglum:volken-goubitz-covering-the-blade

↑ back to top ↑


Watson, David R. (2009) Iolo’s First Book of Crossbows. 2nd Edition (Gwasg Caeseg Wen Press: Austin, TX) siglum: watson-iolos-book-of-crossbows

Albert Way, "Illustrations of Medieval Manners and Costume from Original Documents. Jousts of Peace, Tournaments, and Judicial Combats" The Archaeological Journal, Vol. 4, pp. 226-239 siglum: way-jousts-tournaments-judicial-combats

Albert Way, “Accounts of the Constables of Dover Castle,” The Archaeological Journal, Vol. 11 (1854) pp. 381-388

Albert Way, "The Armour and Arms belonging to Henry Bowet, Archbishop of York, deceased in 1423; from the Roll of his Executors' Accounts," The Archaeological Journal, Vol. 19 (1862) pp. 159-165

Albert Way, “Inventory of the Armoury in the Castle of Amboise, in the reign of Louis XII,” The Archaeological Journal, 26 (1869) pp. 209-224 siglum: way-inventories-of-amboise

Wedell, Moritz (2010) "Metrology." In Albrecht Classen (ed.), Handbook of Medieval Studies: Terms - Methods - Trends (Walter de Gruyter: Berlin/New York) vol. 1 pp. 897-919 {survey of publications on weights and measures} siglum: wedell-metrology

Wey, Willian (1458) “A Provision.” In George Willias and Bulkeley Bandinel (eds.), The Itineraries of William Wey, fellow of Eton college. To Jerusalem, A.D. 1458 and A.D. 1462; and to Saint James of Compostella, A.D. 1456. From the original manuscript in the Bodleian library (Roxburghe Club: London, 1857) pp. 4-7 Condensed, Modern English version at siglum:wey-itineraries

Katherine Anne Wilson, The Power of Textiles: Tapestries of the Burgundian Diminions (1363-1477). Burgundica 26. Turnhout: Brepolis, 2018. siglum: wilson-power-of-textiles

Annemariek Willemsen, Medieval Chic in Metal: Decorative Mounts on Belts and Purses From the Low Countries, 1300-1600. Stichting Promotie Archeologie, 2012. siglum: willemsen-medieval-chic

Annemarieke Willemsen, “‘Man is a sack of muck girded with silver’: Metal Decoration on Late-medieval Leather Belts and Purses from the Netherlands, Medieval Archaeology 56 (2012) pp. 171-202 DOI: 10.1179/0076609712Z.0000000006 {summary of her book on small finds} siglum: willemsen-leather-belts-purses

Annemarieke Willemsen, Honderden… Van hand tot hand: handschoenen en wanten in de Nederlanden voor 1700. Spa uitgevers B.V.: Leiden, 2015. ISBN-13 9789089321275. siglum: willemsen-handschoenen-en-wanten

C.M. Woolgar, Household Accounts from Medieval England. Records of social and economic history, New Series, 17 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992 and 1993) {one book published in two parts: the first explains his methods and talks about the physical documents, the second has most of the clothing and accessories} siglum:woolgar-household-accounts

Woosnam-Savage, Robert C. "'our bruised arms hung up for monuments: The Sword of King Henry V?", in The Funeral Achievements of Henry V at Westminster Abbey: The Arms and Armor of Death. Royal Armouries Research Series (The Boydell Press: 2022) NON VIDI IN TYPOGRAPHIE

↑ back to top ↑




Ronald Edward Zupko, French Weights and Measures before the Revolution: a Dictionary of Provincial and Local Units (Bloomington Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1978) siglum:zupko-french-weights-and-measures

Ronald Edward Zupko, A Dictionary of Weights and Measures for the British Isles: the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. (American Philosophical Society: Philadelphia, 1985) {I have never been at a library which owned this. See the article by Abraham-Thisse on ells and the book by Pfiffer on ells} siglum:zupko-british-weights-and-measures

Ronald Edward Zupko, Italian Weights and Measures from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society 145 (American Philosophical Society: Philadelphia, 1981) siglum:“zupko-italian-weights-and-measures”

↑ back to top ↑

Not yet sorted:

These are things I have read but not written up citations for, or things I have heard of but not obtained, or things I have skimmed but not read enough to put them in the bibliography and treat as 'things I have read to reference as needed'.

Work siglum:sig

Paris hosiers of 1268 (?)

Paris Tailors and Couturiers of Robes' Rule of 1366

Statuts des chaussetiers de Touraine, février 1447/8 (“Ordonnances des rois de France…”: vol. 13, index and pp. 536-539 On AgeOfDatini

“4. Ordnung des Raths über die Meisterprüfung der Schneider. 1454, Mai 25. Altestes Rathbuch, Bl. 26.” In Max Bär (ed.), Urkunden und Akten zur Geschichte der Verfassung und Verwaltung der Stadt Koblenz bis zum Jahre 1500 (Bonn: Hermann Behrend, 1898) pp. 236-238 ; the quote is page 237 line 8 (they also have an ordinances for hatters etc.) The Gebrüder Grimm kindly cited under Wams β “(als meisterstück soll er schneidern) eynen gemeynen mans tabert und eyns mans wambusch mit gelenken oder ufglaichten (< geleichen?) armen, wie man das nent.” On Age of Datini

Ordonnances des Roys du France XV pp. 474-478 has the rule of the pourpointiers and tailors of Bordeaux from 1462. Its not very interesting at first glance and the French is hard for me to understand.

Statutes of the tailors and pourpointiers of Poitiers, 29 June 1458 (confirmed March 1461). “Ordonnance des rois de France…”) XV pp. 402ff. They made doublets and pourpoints too; item 7 is the only interesting one, a “no one shall put wool or tow (layne ou estouppes) in a doublet or pourpoint which he make for sale” clause. The text says June 1468.

Ordonnances des Roys du France vol. 16 pp. 581-586 (year 1467), Louis XI's ordinance for the pourpointiers of Paris Another edition of the same text is on on Armour in Texts under the year 1382 (they kept reissuing tiny variants of the old rule).

“L. Statut des Parmentiers, Pourpointiers et Tailleurs” (1480) In Augustin Thiérry, Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du Tiers-Etat. Première série, Chartes, coutumes, actes municipaux, statuts des villes et communes de France. Région du Nord. 2. IV. Contenant les pièces relatives à l’histoire municipale d’Abbeville et à celle des villes, bourgs et villages de la Basse-Picardie… (Paris: Félix Bourquelot et Charles Louandre, 1850-1870) pp. 311-314 Reminds me of the one from Amiens, they allow wool as a stuffing. There is a rule for armourers and scabbard-makers on pp. 317-318 but its not very interesting.

Statuts des marchands drapiers et chaussetiers d’Abbeville, 14 août 1497. (Thierry, Augustin, “Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du Tiers Etat…”)

Prof. Dr. Frank Göttmann, Handwerk und Bündnispolitik. Die Handwerkerbünde am Mittelrhein vom 14. bis zum 17. Jh. (Frankfurter Historische Abhandlungen 15). Wiesbaden 1977.

Luciana Frangioni, various

Grimm s.v. Wams n. etc. (note that the Gebrüder Grimm mix a thousand years of language history into one entry, so take time to make sure you understand where each passage comes from)


Material from Niklas’ bibliography Quellen des 14.Jahrhunderts – Literatur für die persönliche Ausstattung (2015):

Material on documents in Holtmann:

Adolf Diestelkamp, Die Entwicklung des Schneidergewerbes in Deutschland bis zum Ausgang des 16. Jahrhunderts, G. Eilert: Unna in Westfalen, 1922. OCLC 928145795

Ernst Müllerleile, Die Gewandschneidergilde in Hildesheim, 1913. OCLC 71961264. “Aus Zeitschrift d. hist. Ver. f. Niedersachsen. Jg. 78.” = Zeitschrift des Historischen Vereins für Niedersachsen (this issue does not seem to have been digitalized as of 2021)

Sabine Struckmeier, Die Textilfärberei vom Spätmittelalter bis zur Frühen Neuzeit: Eine naturwissenschaftlichßtechnische Analyse deutschsprachiger Quellen. Cottbuser Studien zur Geschichte von Technik, Arbeit und Umwelt 35. Waxmann: Münster, 1935. {check out pages 39 and following for a list of 14th and 15th century manuscripts with several hundred dyers’ recipes, many of them unpublished but some in Ploss’ Buch von alten Farben or Oltrogge, Datenbank mittelalterlicher und frühneuzeitlicher Rezepte in handschriftlichre Überlieferung =}

Poems of Peter Suchwirt (d. 1395)

Zimmermann, P. Die junge Haushälterinn, ein Buch für Mütter und Töchter. Basel, 1792 /Luzern: Anich, 1807 {I have not seen this but the webmistress of recommends it}

De Groote, Koen, et al. (2018) “Daer Nu de Boochmakere up Woendt: Geschiedenis En Archeologie van Christoffels Jans, Kruisboogmaker Aan de Veemarkt Te Aalst (1489-1498).” In Koen de Groote and Jan Moens (eds.), Archeologie en geschiedenis van een middeleeuwse woonwijk onder de Hopmarkt te Aalst. Relicta Monografieën 16. (Brussels: Onroerend Erfgoed, 2018) pp. 373-424 {descriptions of scraps found in the house of a late 15th cenutury crossbow-maker}

Gaston Phoebus, Livre de chasse (1387-1389): {This was translated into English by Henry II Duke of York between 1406 and 1413 and modernized in 1904 as Master of the Game (with a forward by Theodore Roosevelt!) but that version may be missing some technical details about crossbows, I need to look at both versions}

R. Beuing und W. Augustyn (eds.) Schilde des Spätmittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit (Passau: Klinger Verlag, 2019) ISBN 978-3-86328-172-4 for sale from Reszension: siglum: beuing-augustyn-eds-schilde

Kirsten O. Frieling, Sehen und gesehen werden. Kleidung an Fürstenhöfen an der Schwelle vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit (ca. 1450–1530). (Mittelalter-Forschungen, Bd. 41.) Ostfildern, Thorbecke 2013

Lüken, Sven / Sensfelder, Jens / Jäger, Felix / Reineke, Brigitte (eds.) (2019) Die Armbrust: Schrecken und Schönheit (Hirmer Verlag: München / Deutsches Historisches Museum: Berlin)

Rasmo, Nicolo (1980) Die Mode als Wegweiser für die Datierung von Kunstwerken des 14. Jh. in Südtirol

Sophie Jolivet, “Bibliographie sur le vêtement au Moyen Age.”

Madou Mireille, Das Mittelalterliche Kostüm in den Niederlanden (Terminologie und Typologie mittelalterlicher Sachgüter: das Beispiel der Kleidung). Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für mittelalterliche Realienkunde Österreichs 10: Sitzungsberichte der österreiche Akademie der wissenschaften phil. hist., kl. 511, Wien, 1988, p. 77-92.

HOCQUET Jean-Claude., La métrologie historique, Paris, P.U.F. 1995

DOURSTHER Horace, Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes, réedition, Méridian, Amsterdam, 1965.

Max von Boehn, Die Mode: Menschen und Moden im Mittelalter: Vom Untergang der Alten Welt bis zur Renaissance (München 1925)

Miriam, “Herjolfsnes Errors Repository”

Marquita Volken and Olaf Goubitz, Covering the Blade: Archaeological Leather Sheaths and Scabbards (Spa-Uitgevers, 2020) ISBN-13 9789089320513 {on finds from Dordrecht, the sequel to Purses in Pieces}

Guy Wilson said to have published on medieval crossbow terminology

Magninus Mediolanensis Opusculum de Saporibus (a book of sauces for #cooking from about 1330-1340: Lynn Thorndike, “A Mediaeval Sauce-Book,” Speculum Vol. 9, No. 2 (April 1934), pp. 183-190, Terence Scully, “The ‘Opusculum de Saporibus’ of Magninus Mediolanensis,” Medium Ævum Vol. 54, No. 2 (1985), pp. 178-207. Thanks Sophia of Neues aus der Gothik!)

Clothes of the Common People In Elizabethan and Early Stuart England: A User’s Manual (Stuart Press: Blackwell, England) (non vidi)

Brun-Durand, M. (1896) “Inventaire des Biens Mobiliers et Immobiliers d’un Jurisconsulte de Vanence, 1348.” In Recueil d’anciens inventaires: imprimés sous les auspices du comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques. Section d’archéologie. Tome I pp. 383 ff.

Ersler, Kristian Sofus August (ed.), Testamenter fra Danmarks Middelalder indtil 1450 (Copenhagen: Kongelige Danske Selskab for Fædrelandets historie og Sprog, 1901) {mostly in Latin}

Georg von Nürnberg's 1424 italian-german phrasebook = Oskar Pausch, Das älteste italienisch-deutsche Sprachbuch (1972). See also Helmut Glück, Ein Franke in Venedig: das Sprachlehrbuch des Georg von Nürnberg (1424) und seine Folgen (2006)

John of Reading, Chronicle: James Tait (ed.), Chronica Johannis de Reading et Anonymi cantuariensis, 1346-1367. Publications of the University of Manchester, Historical Series, Vol. 20 (Sherratt and Hughes: Manchester and London, 1914) {This monk of Westminister Abbey, who died in 1368/9, comments on the new fashions of the 1360s on pp. 167-168 with commentary on pp. 328-330}

Eulogium: Haydon, Frank Scott (ed.), Eulogium (historiarum sive temporis): Chronicon ab orbe condito usque ad annum Domini M.CCC.LXCI., a monacho quodam Malmesburiensi exaratum; accedunt continuiationes duae, quarum una ad annum M.CCCC XIII., altera ad annum M.CCCC.XC. perducta est. Volume 3 (Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green: London, 1863) {this chronicle by a monk of Malmesbury comments on the new fashions of the 1360s on vol. 3 pp. 230-231}

K. Franz, Studien zur Soziologie des Sprachdichters in Deutschland im späten 13. Jahrhundert (1974)

G. Franz (ed.), Quellen zur Geschichte des deutschen Bauernstandes im Mittelalter. AQ 31 (1967)

Joachim Bumke, Courtly Culture: Literature and Society in the High Middle Ages

This site is free, but its not costless. Help keep it going with a donation on, Patreon, or Liberapay.